Under Umayyads rule, several desert castles were constructed, such as: Qasr Al-Mshatta, Qasr Al-Hallabat, Qasr Al-Kharanah, Qasr Tuba, Qasr Amra, and a large administrative palace in Amman.
Jordan's location lies on a pilgrimage route taken by Muslims going to Mecca, which helped the population economically when the Ottomans constructed the Hejaz Railway linking Mecca with Istanbul in 1908.
Jordan prides itself on being an "oasis of stability" in a turbulent region.
In the midst of surrounding turmoil, it has been greatly hospitable, accepting refugees from almost all surrounding conflicts as early as 1948, with most notably the estimated 2.1 million Palestinians and the 1.4 million Syrian refugees residing in the country.
), is a sovereign Arab state in western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Nabataeans are known for their great ability in constructing efficient water collecting methods in the barren desert and their talent in carving structures into solid rocks — notably the Khazneh (treasury).
The origin of the river's name is debated, but the most common explanation is that it derives from the word "yarad" (the descender, "Yarden" is the Hebrew name for the river), found in Hebrew, Aramaic, and other Semitic languages.
These Transjordanian kingdoms were in continuous conflict with the neighbouring Hebrew kingdoms of Israel and Judah, centered west of the Jordan River, though the former was known to have at times controlled small parts east of the River.
In 1946, Jordan became an independent state officially known as The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
Jordan captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967.
During the following years Jordan's economy experienced hardship as it dealt with the effects of the Great Recession and spillover from the Arab Spring, including a cut in its petroleum supply and the collapse of trade with neighbouring countries.