On 4 September 1860, with the approval of the Kyrgyz, Russian forces led by Colonel Zimmermann destroyed the fortress.
In 1868 a Russian settlement was established on the site of the fortress under its original name, "Pishpek".
Bishkek is also the administrative center of the Chuy Region.
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In 1991 the Kyrgyz parliament changed the capital's name to "Bishkek".
Bishkek is situated at an altitude of about 800 meters (2,600 ft), just off the northern fringe of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too range, an extension of the Tian Shan mountain range.
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