The Coptic Orthodox Church has its roots in Egypt, where most of the population became Christian during the first centuries. The community flourished during the Mamluk period (1250-1517), and again with Mohammed Ali in 1830.
Since the 13th century the (Coptic) Patriarch of Alexandria has been represented in Jerusalem by a resident archbishop.
After 1099 and the Crusader conquest, the (Orthodox) patriarchate of Jerusalem, already in exile, was removed to Constantinople.
Permanent residence in Jerusalem was not reestablished until 1845.
Such visits continued over the next 900 years, eventually growing into the great annual pilgrimages of the late 19th century, which continued until World War I, and ended with the Russian Revolution.
Since 1949, title to Russian church properties in what was by then the territory of Israel has been held by the Russian Orthodox Mission (Patriarchate of Moscow); title to properties in areas then under Jordanian control remains with the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission representing the Russian Orthodox Church in Exile.
An Armenian religious community has been present in Jerusalem since the 5th century.
The Orthodox Church (also termed Eastern or Greek-Orthodox Church) consists of a family of Churches all of which acknowledge the honorary primacy of the Patriarch of Constantinople.130 CE) by Hadrian as the Roman city of Aelia Capitolina.Since this date the local Church has been entirely gentile in composition.The non-Chalcedonian churches hold the Monophysite doctrine that in Christ there was but a single, divine nature.The Armenian Orthodox Church dates from the year 301 and the conversion of Armenia, the first nation to embrace Christianity.
Historically, this Church developed from the Churches of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.