In 866, Northumbria was in the midst of internecine struggles when the Vikings raided and captured York.Under Viking rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking trading routes throughout northern Europe.When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík.Jórvík, meanwhile, gradually reduced to York in the centuries after the Conquest, moving from the Middle English Yerk in the 14th century through Yourke in the 16th century to Yarke in the 17th century.In the following century Alcuin of York came to the cathedral school of York.
Archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 80 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary.
In the Middle Ages, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England, a role it has retained.
In the 19th century, York became a hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre.
In recent decades, the economy of York has moved from being dominated by its confectionery and railway-related industries to one that provides services.
The University of York and health services have become major employers, whilst tourism has become an important element of the local economy.
The site of the principia (HQ) of the fortress lies under the foundations of York Minster, and excavations in the undercroft have revealed part of the Roman structure and columns.